Thought of as an essential transport link in the plan to transform the wild and undeveloped west into the industrial heart of Singapore, the Jurong railway line, which was launched in 1966, was one component of the grand scheme that never quite took off. Built with the intention to carry finished goods out of the huge manufacturing hub to the then domestic market in the Peninsula and to move raw materials to the new factories, the railway’s usefulness was to be surpassed by the efficient road transport network that was also in the works.
A remnant of the western reaches of the line in an area now taken over by nature.
The first train that ran, on a 9 mile (14.5 kilometre) journey from Bukit Timah to Shipyard Road on 11 November 1965, was greeted with much anticipation. Some $5.5 million had been invested on the railway. A total of 12 miles (19 kilometres) of tracks were being laid for the project. Passing over eight bridges and through three tunnels, the railway was expected to handle up to 2 to 3 million tons of cargo a year (see Straits Times report dated 12 November 1965, Jurong Railway makes first public run). It does seem that the railway, even in its first decade, fell short in terms of the anticipated amount of cargo it handled. A Report in the New Nation’s 2 June 1975 edition mentions that only 128,000 tons of cargo had been carried by the railway in 1974. The railway’s last whistle blew unnoticed, possibly some time in the early 1990s, barely a quarter of a century after its inauguration. The land, leased from the Jurong Town Corporation (JTC), was returned and lay relatively untouched and the railway left abandoned and largely forgotten.
Now, some two decades after its abandonment, we are seeing what’s left of the railway fade further away. Large portions of the land on which it ran has in more recent times been turned over to more productive use. With the pace of this quickening of late, it may not be long before we see what is left of it lost to the now rapidly changing landscape of the industrial west. This was in fact very much in evidence during a recent walk I took with a few friends along the line’s western reaches. The once continuous corridor we had hope to walk along, is now interrupted by recent development activity, many of which take the shape of the multi-level ramp-up logistics facilities that increasingly seem to flavour the west.
What seems to dominate the industrial landscape of the west – the new ramp-up logistics facilities that now rise up above the zinc factory roofs.
The more visible reminders of the railway, at least in the area west of Teban Gardens, are probably found in its final kilometre close to where it came to a halt at Shipyard Road. A scattering of broken concrete, possibly the broken foundations of the railway buffers, marks what would have been the journey’s end. Following the line eastwards towards Tanjong Kling Road from that point will be rewarded with the former corridor’s western reaches’ largest sections of tracks and a concentration of railway signs. The section just east of refinery Road, would have been where several cement factories, which the railway was known to serve, were located.
Tracing the western reaches ….
Nature having its way over what’s left of the tracks.
The western end of what is left of the tracks.
Nature taking over.
A section of the tracks.
More signs of nature taking over.
The now widened Tanjong Kling Road, where a level crossing was located at, marks the end of the section in which the rusting tracks can be found west of Teban, that is until Jurong Port Road. The curious sounding Tanjong Kling, a cape down the road of the same name, formerly Jalan Besi Baja, is where one finds a significant landmark in the industrialisation of Jurong, the National Iron and Steel Mills. The factory, was Jurong Industrial Estate’s first to start production on 2 August 1963. It has since been bought over by Tata Steel.
Tracks close to where the crossing at Tanjong Kling Road would have been.
A level crossing sign before Tanjong Kling Road.
There are several suggestions as to how the tanjong got its name. A rather intriguing suggestion is one that links it to one of the many fascinating tales of the Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals, the story of Badang. A 14th century champion of the king of Singapura whose strength was legendary, his reputation had reached the shores of the Kling kingdom (the term “Kling”, while regarded today as a derogatory reference to Indians, was commonly used term in the Malay language thought to have been derived from Kalinga, a southern Indian kingdom). This prompted the Rajah of Kling to send his strongman to Singapura to challenge Badang. The challenge, which some have it as having taken place at Tanjong Kling (hence its name), was won with ease by Badang. The champion of Singapura was not only able to lift a huge stone that the Kling strongman could only lift to the height of his knees, but also toss it, as the tale would have it, to the mouth of what is thought to be the Singapore River. There is a suspicion that this stone, was the same stone – the Singapore Stone, that once stood at the mouth of the Singapore River.
A break in the continuity of the former corridor where a ramp-up logistics facility is being built just across the former crossing at Tanjong Kling Road.
Badang, if he were to take up the same challenge up today, might have required just a little more effort to send the stone in the same direction. Man-made obstacles of a different stone now surround the area around Tanjong Kling, one of which, a tall ramp-up logistics facility, now straddles the path the trains once took - just across Tanjong Kling Road. The newly built structure, cut our intended path off towards the western most of Singapore’s railway bridges. A concrete girder bridge across Sungei Lanchar, its somewhat modern appearance tells us that it is a more recent replacement, possibly made necessary by canal widening, for what would have been one of the line’s original bridges.
The western most railway bridge – a modern concrete bridge over Sungei Lanchar.
On the bridge over Sungei Lanchar.
Our attempt to follow the path of the railway was further hampered by recent extensions of factory spaces into the former corridor and a detour was required to take us to the location of the westernmost rail tunnel under Jalan Buroh. The tunnel, now a series of tunnels, lies under the huge roundabout and under the shadow of the bridge linking Jurong Pier Road to Jurong Island. This was to be the last we were to see of the former railway before we came to another former crossing that carried the trains across Jurong Port Road. We were to discover that all traces of the two southbound spur lines on either side of Jurong Port Road we had hope to walk along, still around until fairly recent times, have also all but disappeared.
In search of the tunnel under the Jurong Pier Circus.
A view of the tunnel, now obscured by vegetation.
Another logistics facility standing where the line ran along Jurong Pier Road.
A southward view from Jalan Buroh towards what was the corridor along which the spur line west of Jurong Port Road ran.
Where the same spur line ran northwards.
The southward view to where the spur line east of Jurong Port Road ran.
A new road, evident from the plastic protection still on the road sign, running northward along what was the spur line east of Jurong Port Road.
Unable to follow our intended path, we settled for a walk up Jurong Port Road. This was rewarded with a rather interesting find in a factory building with its name in Chinese made using characters attributed to the hand of a renowned calligrapher, the late Pan Shou. The far end of the road from the factory, just south of what would have been Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim (now the Ayer Rajah Expressway or AYE), we find evidence of the former level crossing in a pair of metal rails embedded into the road. Close by are also several remnants of the tracks running east into what now seems to be a space for parking of heavy vehicles.
The detour we had to take along Jurong Port Road threw up an interesting find – a factory building with its characters in Chinese made by the strokes of a renowned calligrapher Pan Shou.
Tracks of the former level crossing are in evidence at Jurong Port Road.
Tracks seen in what seems to be used as a lorry parking space just south of the former Jurong Bus Interchange.
The end of the lorry park, which lies south of the site of another one time Jurong landmark, the former Jurong Bus Interchange, is where another girder bridge, is to be found. Possibly one of the original steel bridges, the railway tracks one the bridge is still largely intact. Further east, traces of the line disappear until the area just past the pedestrian overhead bridge across the AYE from Taman Jurong. Here, some sleepers can be seen, embedded into a seemingly well trodden path.
The steel girder bridge close to the former Jurong Bus Interchange.
A view on top of the bridge.
The area once occupied by the former interchange.
Evidence of the tracks off the AYE across from Taman Jurong.
Further east, we come to the part of Singapore that will serve the railway of the future as its end point. The journey of the future, to the west of Singapore from Kuala Lumpur, would involve an amount of time that would probably be a little more that the time it might have taken the industrial trains of old to make the journey down from Singapore’s north – not counting the time it would take to clear border formalities. Just across the AYE from the future terminus, the industrial trains, running along the former Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim, would have passed over Sungei Jurong. A long span concrete girder bridge, another that is probably more recent, tells us of this, as does the remnants of another steel girder bridge – the last piece of the railway we were to discover before the end of what turned out to be a 10 kilometre walk.
The concrete bridge – across the Jurong River.
On the evidence of what we saw during the long but not so winding walk was how the landscape of the industrial west is rapidly changing. Ramp-up logistics hubs are now growing out of spaces that would once have been given to low-rise production facilities and large parts of the former rail corridor. This signals a shift towards a fast-growing industrial sector that now accounts for some 9% of Singapore’s GDP. What was also evident is that it will not be long before all traces of the railway in the industrial west is lost and with that the promise with which the first train ran in the first few months of our independence, will completely be forgotten.
See also: Photographs of the remnants of the same stretch of line taken by Mr Leong Kwok Peng of the Nature Society in 2011.
The author also blogs on The Long and Winding Road.
I found myself back at a place from my past, not so much to take a look back as I often am inclined to do, but to look at what is to come - the beginnings of a new generation of naval patrol vessels, the first of which was being launched yesterday at Singapore Technologies Marine (ST Marine). Developments in the design of naval ships have in the last two decades given naval craft such as patrol vessels fanciful looks and names. In keeping with this fashion, the new class of vessels that will replace the Patrol Vessels (PV) of the generation past that I had a hand in designing at the start of my career as Naval Architect, will be known not simply as a PV, by a fancy sounding Littoral Mission Vessel or LMV- reflective perhaps also of how the role of a near shore maritime security vessel has evolved in the interim.
The RSS Independence, the first of the new class of eight LMVs, is being built as a replacement to the eleven surviving PVs. The aptly named Independence, launched in the year Singapore celebrates 50 years of nationhood by Mrs Ivy Ng – the wife of Defence Minister Dr Ng Eng Hen, is being constructed based on a Saab Kockums AB basic design. Featuring a steel hull and a carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) superstructure to reduce topside weight, she will be fitted out with a suite of state-of-the-art sensors and weapon systems intended to provide her with a superior response and surveillance capabilities than the PVs to better meet the navy’s needs in patrolling the littoral zone. In comparison to the PVs, the LMVs will also see a greater integration of her naval and platform operations, and in her maintenance and logistic support systems.
The unfinished Integrated Command Centre with the Engineering and Navigation consoles.
LTC Chew Chun Chau, who heads the LMV Project team, giving a presentation of the LMV’s Weapon fit out.
A snapshot of the LMV’s Surveillance capabilities.
One of the key features of the Independence class LMVs will be her Integrated Command Centre (ICC). The ICC sees, unusually for a naval vessel, the co-location of the Navigation, Command and Control, and Engineering centers. Housed on the upper level of the the superstructure, the co-location is a move-away from traditional thinking as the three centres, the Bridge, the Combat Information Centre or CIC, and the Machinery Control Room or MCR would be kept in separate compartments to reduce the vulnerabilities that come with co-location.
A full-scale mock-up of the ICC at the shipyard.
The Independence’s ICC will offer a 360 degree panoramic view, again something that is unusual for the crew manning the CIC and MCR on conventional naval craft. Along with the housing of the various functions in one command centre, this will provide for better operational effectiveness and make the LMVs better suited to fulfill their roles in the provision of maritime security in the littoral zone.
ME 5 Tang Chee Meng explaining the concept of the ICC.
Much thought has been put into the design of the ICC. The conceptualisation of this started as far back as 2011. Cognitive task analysis and scenario based experiments were carried out over a two-year period before implementation could be done, first in a specially set up simulation room. The room, which I had the opportunity to have a peek at prior to the launch, allows modelling and simulation of the LMVs command and control systems to be carried out, allowing the crew to be trained prior installation and integration of the actual systems on the LMVs.
A simulation of the ICC.
Simulation of a successful hit on a hostile sampan sized craft.
A simulation of a LMV escort operation was also carried out during that visit. This provided an appreciation of the difficulty faced by the crew in the identification of threats in the congested nearshore zone as well demonstrated how well the LMVs, are equipped to deal with such threats.
Touch screen interfaces will be employed on the operating consoles of the ICC.
A key feature of the LMVs is the network-centric integrated communication and network system. This will facilitate the communication and sharing of information on board and at the same time integrate it with the Singapore Armed Force’s larger IKC2 network, allowing real-time information sharing across the assets that are deployed. Communication with shore-side centres is also key to the logistics and engineering support concept that is being introduced to the LMVs. A remote health monitoring system will monitor the LMVs combat and platform systems’ from the shore and help in identifying pre-emptive maintenance needs.
The view from the command cluster in the ICC’s simulation room.
Although much larger than the PVs, the LMVs will carry a baseline complement of 23, expandable to a maximum of 61. The reduction in manning is being achieved through the use of advanced sense-making and decision support systems, increased levels of automation, and improvement in operational methods through design and equipment selection. An Integrated Platform Management System will be used to better manage situations such as engineering defects and to help with fire-fighting and damage control management.
The navigation console in the ICC.
One area in which manpower needs will see a significant improvement in the launch and recovery of the platform’s Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats (RHIBs). Used for interception and boarding operations, the LMVs RHIBs are deployed via a stern ramp. A specially designed system of rollers fitted at an inclined well at the stern and on the ramp will allow the boats to be launched and recovered with a minimum of manpower. The traditional method of launch and recovery involves davits or cranes, which would have required much more manpower.
A stern-launched RHIB.
Outwardly, the LMVs will look very different from the PVs. A feature that will certainly stand out will the LMVs enclosed mast. The design of the enclosed and stacked mast provides a means not only to locate the LMVs sensors more optimally, it will also enable access to the sensors for maintenance, without the LMVs having to go into the shipyard.
Another feature of the LMVs that will differentiate them from the PVs, is a helideck. Designed to land and secure a medium lift helicopter, the deck is also where two hatches can be seen, through which modular and containerised mission based systems can be loaded into a mission bay below. This allows flexibility in configuring the LMVs for different operational roles. For example, a medical mission modules can be loaded for a one-off operation when the LMVs are tasked to carry out missions involving humanitarian, disaster relief or search and rescue operations,
The LMVs, assembled from 19 hull construction blocks, one of which is the CFRP superstructure, will be delivered to the RSN in early 2016 – approximately in six months time, after which the ICIT – the Installation, Checkout, Integration and Testing phase will take place before the Independence is expected to be commissioned in 2017. The class is scheduled to be fully operational in 2020. More information on the LMVs can be found at the Littoral Mission Vessel.
Dr. Ng Eng Hen, who recalled the previous RSN ship he and his wife launched in Karlskrona – when blankets were given out to the guests. The RSS Independence was launched by Mrs Ivy Ng.
The author also blogs on The Long and Winding Road.
Every two years in May, the international maritime defence exhibition, IMDEX Asia, comes to town and offers a chance not only to catch up with the going-ons in the region’s naval developments, but also a rare opportunity to take a look at some of the the naval assets of the powers in the Asia Pacific region. This year’s treat must have been the chance to get up-close to the very impressive looking and well-built Chinese stealth frigate, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy’s 4,000-tonne Type 054A Jiangkai II class CNS Yulin (FFG 569).
The People’s Liberation Army Navy’s Type 054-A Jiangkai II Class Stealth Frigate, CNS Yulin.
The 32 cell HQ-16 SAM vertical launcher system on the fore deck.
There were also the ships of some of the navies whose presence in the region helps maintain a balance, chief among them the United States Navy (USN), which was the foreign navy with the largest number of ships at Changi Naval Base with two surface ships and a submarine. These were the Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer USS Mustin (DDG 89), a Freedom Class Littoral Combat Ship USS Fort Worth (LCS 3), and a Los Angeles Class submarine, the USS Pasadena (SSN 752). Some of the others at berth were a Republic of Korea Navy Incheon Class Frigate ROKS Incheon (FFX 811), a Royal Australian Navy Anzac Class Frigate HMAS Perth (FFH 157), and several ships of the regional and Indian sub-continent navies. More on IMDEX Asia 2015 can be found at the exhibition’s website. The next exhibition is schedule to take place from 16 to 18 May 2017.
The USS Fort Worth, a Freedom class Littoral Combat Ship.
USS Mustin, an Arleigh Burke class Destroyer.
USS Pasadena, a Los Angeles Class submarine.
SLNS Sayura, a Sukanya class Offshore Patrol Vessel and the flagship of the Sri Lanka Navy.
The stern of the ROKS Incheon against the incoming storm.
The KD Lekir, a TLDM (Royal Malaysian Navy) Kasturi Class Corvette.
The Indian Navy’s INS Satpura, a Shivalik Class Frigate.
The silhouettes of two of the Republic of Singapore Navy’s Endurance class LSTs.
Previous posts on other naval vessels:
- RSS Endurance (Landing Ship Tank) + Helo and Well Deck Ops
- The Italian Navy’s ITS San Giusto (Landing Platform Dock)
- The French Navy’s FNS Mistral (Landing Platform Helicopter)
One of the last two dragons of Singapore, the Thow Kwang dragon kiln, was brought to life over the weekend, its flames fed by a team of potters and volunteers working through the night. The use of such kilns, a tradition imported by the Teochew community, served a necessary purpose in the production of latex cups in the days when rubber plantations covered large parts of Singapore’s rural landscape. At its height, the would be kept running with little pause through a cycle of packing, firing, cooling and unpacking that would take place up to four times a month.
With the end of rubber production on the island, many kilns lost their relevance. Some turned to making flower pots in the 1980s, a decade that saw many others forced to close. Today, only the former Guan Huat and Thow Kwang kilns, both of which are located off Jalan Bahar, have survived.
Fired by those with the passion to keep an age-old tradition alive, for now at least the dragons still breathe. The kilns operate on land that the Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) now owns, are on an extension to their respective leases that could see them used up to 2023/2024, beyond which, little is known of what will become of them.
To learn more about the kiln, how it is fired and also the art of wood-fired pottery, there is a wonderful app (only for iPad at the moment) that can be downloaded at Dragon Fire.
More information on the Thow Kwang kiln and its previous firings and some of the preparatory work that goes on before a kiln is fired, do also visit some of my previous posts:
- The dragon comes alive for Mid-Autumn
- The dragons live on
- A dragon draws breath
- Another bit of paradise soon to be lost
- Into the belly of the Dragon
The author also blogs on The Long and Winding Road.
Animation has allowed many a tale to be spun in which the unlikeliest of heroes take centre-stage. This is especially so in the last two decades with the availability of the computing power required to allow CGI animation to give scenes and characters a much greater degree of realism. We now have a chance in Singapore to see what how DreamWorks Animation, one of the studios at the forefront of animation, in bringing endearing characters such as a love struck ogre and a round kung-fu kicking panda to life, at Dreamworks Animation: The Exhibition. The exhibition, which opened at the ArtScience Museum over the weekend, will be a treat not just for animation fans, but also anyone and everyone who has watched any of DreamWorks’ wonderful creations.
Curated by the Australian Centre for the Moving Image (ACMI), the exhibition, which is divided into three main galleries, also offers the visitor lots of opportunities to have a feel for some of the processes involved in animation for themselves, through its interactive components. One that will certainly be a hit would be the Face Poser interactive station. Here, visitors can play around at manipulating facial features such as furrowing a brow or raising an eyebrow of a character to give different facial expressions and show different emotions.
There also is an opportunity to have a feel of the software used by DreamWorks’ animators at another interactive station in the Drawing Room. This will allow visitors to create a short 2D animation sequence with the aid of a tutorial.
The exhibition proper, which is on its first stop of an intended five-year international tour, takes visitors through the process of how characters are developed and how they evolve from 2D sketches to what we see on the screen in the Character gallery, how the story is developed and sold in the Story gallery, and finally how the magical worlds – the wonderful scenes that give a flavour to the films are woven around the characters and the story, in the World gallery.
In the Character, we are also introduced to how the development of characters have evolved with the advances in computing, with the display of sketches, the marquettes that were used to develop 3D images prior to this being done completely on the computer screen, as well as in-depth interviews that are screened.
The Story gallery is where one finds what I thought was one of the more interesting exhibits – a digital storyboard at which visitors can catch a very animated Conrad Vernon, doing a pitch for the “Interrogating Gingy” scene in Shrek. The filmmaker was apparently so convincing that DreamWorks had him lend voice the gingerbread man his voice.
The World gallery, the largest section, is where the work of directors, designers and concept artists converge and where we have a look at some of the thoughts that go into the scenes. It is also where another of the exhibition’s must-dos, Dragon Flight: A Dragon’s-Eye view of Berk, a panoramic ride on the back of Toothless from How to Train Your Dragon over Berk across a 40-foot 180 degree projection, specially made for the exhibition, can be viewed.
There will be lots of other programmes and activities during the exhibition period, including screenings of some of our favourite DreamWorks’ films. More information on the exhibition, including a full list of programmes and on ticketing can be found at the exhibition page on the ArtScience Museum’s website.
The author also blogs on The Long and Winding Road.